Host of the Conference

WHO Kobe Centre
globalforum@wkc.who.int
wkc@wkc.who.int
Tel: (+81)78-230-3100
Fax: (+81)78-230-3178
Address:
1-5-1 Wakinohama-Kaigandori
Chuo-ku, Kobe 651-0073
Japan

WHO
http://www.who.int/en/

Secretariat for GFUH2010
(For Registration, Accommodation, etc.)
c/o Convention Linkage
http://rcx-storm.org/
reg@rcx-storm.org
Tel: (+81) 6-6377-2188
Fax: (+81) 6-6377-2075
Address:
PIAS TOWER 11F, 3-19-3
Toyosaki, Kita-ku
Osaka 531-0072
Japan

Useful Links

Kobe city
http://www.city.kobe.lg.jp/
Official Kobe Tourism site
http://www.feel-kobe.jp/

 

Arrest


An arrest is the act of apprehending a person and taking them into custody, usually because they have been suspected of committing or planning a crime. After the person is taken into custody, they can be questioned further and/or charged. An arrest is a procedure in a criminal justice system.

As a safeguard against the abuse of power, many countries require that an arrest must be made for a thoroughly justified reason, such as the requirement of probable cause in the United States. Furthermore, the time that a person can be detained in custody is relatively short (in most cases 24 hours in the United Kingdom and France and 24 or 48 hours in the United States) before the detained person must be either charged or released.

The word "arrest" is Anglo-Norman in origin, derived from the French word arrt meaning 'to stop or stay' and signifies a restraint of a person. Lexicologically, the meaning of the word arrest is given in various dictionaries depending upon the circumstances in which the word is used. There are numerous slang terms for being arrested throughout the world. In British slang terminology, the term "nicked" is often synonymous with being arrested, and "nick" can also refer to a police station, and the term "pinched" is also common. In the United States and France the term "collared" is sometimes used. The terms "lifted" or "picked up" are also heard on occasion.

According to Indian law, no formality is needed during the procedure of arrest. The arrest can be made by a citizen, a police officer or a Magistrate. The police officer needs to inform the person being arrested the full particulars of the person's offence and that they are entitled to be released on bail if the offence fits the criteria for being bailable. There is no general rule of eligibility or requirement that a police officer must handcuff a person who is being arrested. When there is a question regarding handcuffing a person then at that time case laws has stated that the choice to handcuff a person is dependent on the surrounding circumstances, and that officers should always take the proper precautions to ensure the safety of themselves, and the public.

In the United States, there exists a distinction between an investigatory stop or detention, and an arrest. The distinction tends to be whether or not the stop is "brief and cursory" in nature, and whether or not a reasonable individual would feel free to leave.

When there exists probable cause to believe that a person has committed a minor crime, such as petty theft, driving on a suspended license, or disturbing the peace, law enforcement agents typically issue the individual a citation but do not otherwise detain them. The person must then appear in court on the date provided on the citation. Prior to the court date, the prosecution will decide whether to file formal criminal charges against the individual. When the accused appears in court, they will be advised if formal criminal charges have been filed. If charges are filed, they will be asked to plead guilty or not guilty at the initial court hearing, which is referred to as the arraignment.

When a person is arrested for a serious crime, the defendant will have their picture taken and be held in pre-trial prison. Under certain circumstances (that is where the public won't be endangered by one's release from custody), the defendant may be entitled to release on bail. If the accused cannot post a monetary bail, they will appear at their arraignment where the judge will determine if the bail set by the schedule should be lowered.

Also, in certain states, the prosecution has 48 hours to decide whether or not to file formal charges against the accused. For example, in California, if no formal charges are filed within the 48-hour period, the accused must be released from the arresting host's custody. If formal charges are filed, the accused will be asked to appear at their arraignment. At the arraignment, the accused will be asked to plead guilty or not guilty, and the judge will set a bail amount (or refuse to set bail) for the accused.

In 2010, the FBI estimated that law enforcement agencies made 13,120,947 arrests (excluding traffic violations). Of those persons arrested, 74.5% were male and 69.4 percent of all persons arrested were white, 28.0 percent were black, and the remaining 2.6 percent were of other ethnicities.

Arrests under English law fall into two general categorieswith and without a warrantand then into more specific subcategories. Regardless of what power a person is arrested under, they must be informed that they are under arrest and of the grounds for their arrest at the time or as soon after the arrest as is practicable, otherwise the arrest is unlawful.

Arrest powers in Northern Ireland are informed by the Police and Criminal Evidence (Northern Ireland) Order 1989. This order legislates operational standards during arrest, questioning and charging a person suspected of committing a crime. Breach of this order may affect the investigation. Arrestees in Northern Ireland have the right to contact a person to inform them of an arrest, and legal representation.

However, an arrest warrant is not always necessary. Under section 50(1) of the Police Force Ordinance, a police officer can "apprehend" (i.e. arrest) a person if he reasonably suspects the person being arrested is guilty of an offence. Whether there is such a reasonable suspicion in a particular case is to be determined objectively by reference to facts and information which the arresting officer has at the time of the arrest. It is not necessary that the officer knows the exact statutory provision that the suspect has violated, so long as the officer reasonably suspects that the suspect has done something amounting to an offence.

The warning must inform the detainee that they have the right to be silent, the right to legal counsel (and the availability of pro bono legal assistance), and that what they say can be used against them. The failure to provide a detainee with an adequate warning could make information obtained from an interrogation inadmissible in court, but does not prevent other evidence from being used to obtain a conviction. As in the British system, the exact phrasing of the warning is not explicitly mandated under federal law. There are also additional requirements about the warning that vary from state to state and may depend on the circumstances (such as when the arrestee is a non-citizen or juvenile). Since the exact wording used in an arrest is legally important, police officers often carry a printed copy of the rights with them and read from it when providing the warning to ensure accuracy.

While an arrest will not necessarily lead to a criminal conviction, it may nonetheless in some jurisdictions have serious ramifications such as absence from work, social stigma, and in some cases, the legal obligation to disclose a conviction when a person applies for a job, a loan or a professional license. In the United States a person who was not found guilty after an arrest can remove their arrest record through an expungement or (in California) a finding of factual innocence. A cleared person has the choice to file a complaint or a lawsuit if they choose to. Legal action is sometimes filed against the government after a wrongful arrest.



 

 

-->